Changing permalinks gives me 404 errors on nginx

EDIT

It turns out that I was barking up the wrong tree trying to edit .htaccess, as nginx doesn’t use it. What I apparently need to do is edit my .conf file. Before I read this, my_app.conf looked like this:

upstream backend {
    server unix:/u/apps/my_app/tmp/php.sock;
}

server {

    listen 80 default;
    root /u/apps/my_app/www;
    index index.php;

    access_log /u/apps/my_app/logs/access.log;
    error_log /u/apps/my_app/logs/error.log;

    location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php;
    }

    # This location block matches anything ending in .php and sends it to
    # our PHP-FPM socket, defined in the upstream block above.
    location ~ \.php$ {
        try_files $uri =404;
        fastcgi_pass backend;
        fastcgi_index index.php;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /u/apps/my_app/www$fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;
    }

    # This location block is used to view PHP-FPM stats
    location ~ ^/(php_status|php_ping)$ {
        fastcgi_pass backend;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;
        allow 127.0.0.1;
        deny all;
    }

    # This location block is used to view nginx stats
    location /nginx_status {
        stub_status on;
        access_log off;
        allow 127.0.0.1;
        deny all;
    }
}

Now it looks like this, and it’s still not working:

upstream backend {
    server unix:/u/apps/my_app/tmp/php.sock;
}

server {

    listen 80 default;
    root /u/apps/my_app/www;
    index index.php;

    access_log /u/apps/my_app/logs/access.log;
    error_log /u/apps/my_app/logs/error.log;

    location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php;
    }

    location /wordpress/ {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;
    }

    rewrite /wp-admin$ $scheme://$host$uri/ permanent;

    location ~* ^.+\.(ogg|ogv|svg|svgz|eot|otf|woff|mp4|ttf|rss|atom|jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2    |doc|xls|exe|ppt|tar|mid|midi|wav|bmp|rtf)$ {
       access_log off; log_not_found off; expires max;
    }

    # Uncomment one of the lines below for the appropriate caching plugin (if used).
    #include global/wordpress-wp-super-cache.conf;
    #include global/wordpress-w3-total-cache.conf;

    # This location block matches anything ending in .php and sends it to
    # our PHP-FPM socket, defined in the upstream block above.
    location ~ \.php$ {
        try_files $uri =404;
        fastcgi_pass backend;
        fastcgi_index index.php;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /u/apps/my_app/www$fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;
    }

    # This location block is used to view PHP-FPM stats
    location ~ ^/(php_status|php_ping)$ {
        fastcgi_pass backend;
        fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $fastcgi_script_name;
        include fastcgi_params;
        allow 127.0.0.1;
        deny all;
    }

    # This location block is used to view nginx stats
    location /nginx_status {
        stub_status on;
        access_log off;
        allow 127.0.0.1;
        deny all;
    }
}

Anyone know what I’m doing wrong?

END EDIT

I have changed my permalinks from the default to /%postname%/, and now the links within WordPress’s Admin panel give me 404 errors – Not WordPress 404 pages, nginx 404 pages. Looking up why this is told me that this should be editing my .htaccess file or telling me WordPress can’t rewrite .htaccess – the .htaccess file is nonexistant, and WordPress isn’t giving any errors when I change permalinks.

I’ve tried creating a blank .htaccess file in my wordpress folder, giving it 666 permissions, changing the user and group to www-data and then changing the permalinks- that didn’t work. I then changed it to this before changing the permalinks:

# BEGIN WordPress
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ - [L]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php [L]
</IfModule>
# END WordPress

When that didn’t work, I changed RewriteBase to /wordpress/ before changing permalinks again – still nothing.

I’ve also gone into my site’s .conf file and changed try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php; to the following, restarting nginx and php5-fpm each time;

try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$query_string;

try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?q=$request_uri;

try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;

I’m running a home server with nginx. Any ideas about what’s going on here?

Solutions Collecting From Web of "Changing permalinks gives me 404 errors on nginx"

Those are Apache .htaccess rewrite rules, but you have stated that you are on an Nginx server. Nginx does not use an .htaccess-like directory level file, much less does it use the .htaccess file itself.. You need to edit the server configuration itself. The Codex has a detail sample:

# WordPress single blog rules.
# Designed to be included in any server {} block.

# This order might seem weird - this is attempted to match last if rules below fail.
# http://wiki.nginx.org/HttpCoreModule
location / {
    try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;
}

# Add trailing slash to */wp-admin requests.
rewrite /wp-admin$ $scheme://$host$uri/ permanent;

# Directives to send expires headers and turn off 404 error logging.
location ~* ^.+\.(ogg|ogv|svg|svgz|eot|otf|woff|mp4|ttf|rss|atom|jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|zip|tgz|gz|rar|bz2|doc|xls|exe|ppt|tar|mid|midi|wav|bmp|rtf)$ {
       access_log off; log_not_found off; expires max;
}

# Uncomment one of the lines below for the appropriate caching plugin (if used).
#include global/wordpress-wp-super-cache.conf;
#include global/wordpress-w3-total-cache.conf;

# Pass all .php files onto a php-fpm/php-fcgi server.
location ~ [^/]\.php(/|$) {
    fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+?\.php)(/.*)$;
    if (!-f $document_root$fastcgi_script_name) {
        return 404;
    }
    # This is a robust solution for path info security issue and works with "cgi.fix_pathinfo = 1" in /etc/php.ini (default)

    include fastcgi.conf;
    fastcgi_index index.php;
#   fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
    fastcgi_pass php;
}

I’m using wordpress multisite with custom permalink setting: /%category%/%postname%/

/etc/nginx/site-available/domain.conf

On server{

location / {
    try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?q=$uri$args;
}

If your root wordpress is not the webroot but http://domain.com/wordpress/:

location /wordpress/ {
    try_files $uri $uri/ /wordpress/index.php?q=$uri$args;
}

If you are using old wordpress with blogs.dir, add:
location ^~ /blogs.dir {
internal;
alias /var/www/wordpress/wp-content/blogs.dir;
access_log off; log_not_found off; expires max;
}

Check the nginx configuration:
sudo nginx -t

Reload nginx:
sudo service nginx reload

Also try change permalink settings.

Had to add this piece of code to both the /sites-available/your-settings-file and /sites-enabled/your-settings-file:

server {
[...]

if (!-e $request_filename) {
    rewrite ^.*$ /index.php last;
}

[...]
}

It’s working for me now.