Title Case WordPress Menu Items

I’m trying to covert all menu items to title case; this is the function I’m using to change output to title case:

function titleCase($title) {

    $smallwordsarray = array( 'of','a','the','and','an','or','nor','but','is','if','then','else','when', 'at','from','by','on','off','for','in','to','into','with' );

    // Split the string into separate words
    $words = explode(' ', $title);

    foreach ($words as $key => $word) {

    // If this word is the first, or it's not one of our small words, capitalise it
    // with ucwords().
    if ($key == 0 or !in_array($word, $smallwordsarray))
        $words[$key] = ucwords($word);

    // Join the words back into a string
    $newtitle = implode(' ', $words);

    return $newtitle;



So if for example I want to change the title output I can do this:

echo titleCase(get_the_title());

The issue is I don’t know how to apply the above function to the wp_nav_menu() output:

<?php wp_nav_menu( array( 'theme_location' => 'primary', 'menu_id' => 'primary-menu' ) ); ?>

Any help greatly appreciated.

Solutions Collecting From Web of "Title Case WordPress Menu Items"

See if the following might work for you, I posted about it yesterday in response to another question so played around with it today. Also see the point in the codex of inheriting from Walker_Nav_Menu instead. You can subsequently modify the output of the menu and use your function.

Example from the codex:

class Walker_Quickstart_Menu extends Walker {

    // Tell Walker where to inherit it's parent and id values
    var $db_fields = array(
        'parent' => 'menu_item_parent', 
        'id'     => 'db_id' 

     * At the start of each element, output a <li> and <a> tag structure.
     * Note: Menu objects include url and title properties, so we will use those.
    function start_el( &$output, $item, $depth = 0, $args = array(), $id = 0 ) {
        $output .= sprintf( "\n<li><a href='%s'%s>%s</a></li>\n",
            ( $item->object_id === get_the_ID() ) ? ' class="current"' : '',



        'menu'    => 2, //menu id
        'walker'  => new Walker_Quickstart_Menu() //use our custom walker

Reference: https://codex.wordpress.org/Class_Reference/Walker